Avro 504 Airplane Videos and Airplane Pictures

Avro 504 Videos

Loading...

Avro 504 Video - Overview

Avro 504 Aircraft Information

Avro 504

Avro 504

Avro 504

Role: Trainer, Fighter, Bomber
Manufacturer: Avro
First flight: 18 September 1913
Introduced: 1913
Retired: 1934
Primary users: Royal Flying Corps Royal Naval Air Service
Produced: 1913 - 1932
Number built: 8970

The Avro 504 was a World War I biplane aircraft made by the Avro aircraft company and under licence by others. Production during the War totalled 8,970 and continued for almost 20 years, making it the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during that conflict. Over 10,000 would be built from 1913 to the time production ended in 1932.

Design and development

First flown on 18 September 1913, powered by an 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome Monosoupape engine, the Avro 504 was a development of the earlier Avro 500, designed for training and private flying. It was a two-bay biplane of all-wooden construction, with a square-section fuselage.

Airplane Picture - The Shuttleworth Avro 504K

Picture - The Shuttleworth Avro 504K

Operational history

Small numbers of early aircraft were purchased both by the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) prior to the start of World War I, and were taken to France when the war started. One of the RFC aircraft was the first British aircraft to be shot down by the Germans, on 22 August 1914. The pilot was 2nd Lt. Vincent Waterfall and his navigator Lt Charles George Gordon Bayly (both of 5 Sqn RFC) The RNAS used four 504s to form a special flight in order to bomb the Zeppelin works at Friedrichshafen on the shores of Lake Constance. Three set out from Belfort in north-eastern France on 21 November 1914, carrying four 20 lb (9 kg) bombs each. While one aircraft was shot down, the raid was successful, with several direct hits on the airship sheds and destroying the hydrogen plant.

Soon obsolete as a front-line aircraft, it came into its own as a trainer, with thousands being built in the war, with major production types being the 504J and the mass production 504K, which was designed with modified engine bearers to accommodate a range of engines, in order to cope with engine shortages. 8,340 Avro 504s had been produced by the end of 1918.

Airplane Picture - Foster mounted Lewis gun on night fighter Avro 504K

Picture - Foster mounted Lewis gun on night fighter Avro 504K

In the winter of 1917-18, it was decided to use converted 504Js and 504Ks to equip Home Defence squadrons of the RFC, replacing ageing B.E.2cs, which had poor altitude performance. These aircraft were modified as single-seaters, armed with a Lewis gun above the wing on a Foster mounting, and powered by 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome or 110 hp (80 kW) Le Rhxne engines. 274 converted Avro 504Js and Ks were issued to eight home defence squadrons in 1918, with 226 still being used as fighters at the end of World War I.

Following the end of the war, while the type continued in service as the standard trainer of the RAF, large numbers of surplus aircraft were available for sale, both for civil and military use. More than 300 504Ks were placed on the civil register in Britain. Being used for training, pleasure flying and banner towing, civil 504s continued flying in large numbers until well into the 1930s.

Although Avro 504s sold to China were training versions, they participated in battles among warlords by acting as bombers with pilot dropping hand grenades and modified mortar shells.

The improved, redesigned and radial engined 504N was produced by Avro in 1925. After evaluation of two prototypes powered by Bristol Lucifer and Armstrong-Siddeley Lynx engines respectively, the Lynx powered aircraft was selected by the RAF to replace the 504K. 592 were built between 1925 and 1932, equipping the RAF's five flying training schools, while also being used as communication aircraft. The 504N was also exported to the militaries of Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Denmark, Greece, Thailand and South Africa, with licenced production taking place in Denmark, Belgium, Canada and Japan.

The 504N was finally replaced in 1933 by the Avro Tutor in RAF service, with small numbers continuing in civilian use until 1940, when seven were impressed into RAF service, where they were used for target- and glider-towing.

The 504 was the first aeroplane to strafe troops on the ground as well as the first to make a bombing raid over Germany. It was also the first Allied aeroplane to be downed by enemy anti-aircraft fire and was Billy Bishop's first army aircraft.

The 504 is easily recognisable because of the single skid between the wheels.

Variants

Airplane Picture - Qantas Avro 504K replica displayed at Qantas Domestic Terminal

Picture - Qantas Avro 504K replica displayed at Qantas Domestic Terminal

504: 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

Original model

504A:

Modified with smaller ailerons and broader struts. 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

504B

Version for RNAS with larger fin. 80 hp (60 kw) Gnome or Le Rhxne engine.

504C

Single-seat anti-zeppelin aircraft for the RNAS. The 504C was fitted with an extra fuel tank, in place of the observer.

504D

Single-seat anti-zeppelin aircraft for the Royal Flying Corps. Six built.

504E: 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome engine. Ten built.
504F: 75 hp (60 kW) Rolls-Royce Hawk engine. One built.
504G: 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

504H

Used for catapult trials. 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome engine.

504J

Used as a trainer. 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome or 80 hp (60 kW) Le Rhxne engine.

Airplane Picture - This Avro 504K was the first aeroplane in Iceland, taken there in 1919

Picture - This Avro 504K was the first aeroplane in Iceland, taken there in 1919

504K

Two-seat training aircraft. The 504K had a universal mount to take different engines. Single-seat fighter conversion used for anti-zeppelin work. Several were assembled in Australia by Australian Aircraft & Engineering. 130 hp (100 kW) Clerget, 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome or 110 hp (80 kW) Le Rhxne engines.

504K Mk.II

Hybrid trainer based on 504K fuselage with 504N undercarriage and wings and powered by rotary engine. Built under license in Mexico as Avro Anahuac.

504L

Floatplane version. 150 hp (112 kW) Bentley BR1, 130 hp (100 kW) Clerget or 110 hp (82 kW) Le Rhxne engines.

504M

Three-seat cabin biplane. Only one was ever built. 100 hp (75 kW) Gnome engine.

504N

Two-seat training aircraft. Redesigned postwar trainer for RAF with 160 hp (120 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Lynx engine. 598 built.

504O

Floatplane version of 504N. First aircraft to fly above the Arctic Circle in 1923 Oxford Expedition.

504P

Unbuilt version of the 504N with side-by-side seating.

504Q

Three-seat cabin biplane. The 504Q was built for the Oxford University Arctic Expedition. Only one was ever built. Armstrong Siddeley Lynx engine.

504R Gosport

Reworked trainer with revised, lightweight structure. Five prototypes flown 1926 to 1927 with various engines (100 hp/75 kW Gnome Monosoupape, 100 hp/75 kW) Avro Alpha, 140 hp/104 kW Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major and 150 hp/110 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Mongoose), with the Mongoose chosen for production aircraft. Ten were sold to Argentina, with 100 more built by FMA under licence in Argentina. At least six were exported to Estonia, remaining in service until 1940, and an unknown number to Peru.

504S

Two-seat training aircraft. Built under licence in Japan by Nakajima.

Yokosuka K2Y1

Japanese version of the Avro 504N, powered by a 130 hp (100 kW) Mitsubishi-built Armstrong-Siddeley Mongoose radial piston engine, 104 built.

Yokosuka K2Y2

Improved version of the K2Y1, powered by a 160 hp (120 kW) Gasuden Jimpu 2 radial piston engine. 360 built (K2Y1 and K2Y2).

U-1 (Uchebnyi - 1) Avrushka

Russian copy of the 504K. Over 700 built.

MU-1 (Morskoy Uchebnyi - 1)

Russian seaplane version.

Survivors and flyable reproductions

A small number of static display, and airworthy examples of the Avro 504 exist, almost a century after the first one flew, one of the airworthy examples being the Shuttleworth Collection's example -another flyable example exists in a Canadian aviation museum. An Avro 504K can also be found on static display in the Making of the Modern World Gallery at the London Science Museum.

The Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome has had a flyable Avro 504 reproduction aircraft, powered by an original 110 hp Le Rhxne rotary engine, flying since 1971, and a newly founded company (Blue Swallow Aircraft) in Virginia is starting to produce reproduction Avro 504 examples.

Operators

Argentina Australia

Australian Flying Corps
No. 5 (Training) Squadron in the United Kingdom
No. 6 (Training) Squadron in the United Kingdom
No. 7 (Training) Squadron in the United Kingdom
No. 8 (Training) Squadron in the United Kingdom
Central Flying School AFC at Point Cook, Victoria
Royal Australian Air Force
No. 1 Flying Traing School RAAF at Point Cook
Western Australian Airways

Belgium

Belgian Air Force purchased 50 British-built 504Ks from 1920-22, with a further 27 being built under license by SABCA These were replaced by the 504N, 17 being built by Avro in 1929-31, and 31 being built under license.

Brazil Canada

Royal Canadian Air Force

Chile China Denmark Estonia

Estonian Air Force

Finland

Finnish Air Force

Greece

Hellenic Air Force

Guatemala British India Iran

Imperial Iranian Air Force

Ireland

Irish Air Service
Irish Air Corps

Japan Federated Malay States Mexico Mongolia

Mongolian People's Army Air Corps

Netherlands

Dutch Army Aviation Group -
Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force

New Zealand

New Zealand Permanent Air Force

Norway

Norwegian Army Air Service

Peru Poland

1 Avro 504K

Portugal

Portuguese Air Force
Portuguese Navy

Russian Empire South Africa

South African Air Force

Soviet Union Kingdom of Spain Sweden

Swedish Air Force
Swedish Navy

Switzerland Siam (Thailand) United Kingdom

Royal Flying Corps
Royal Air Force
Royal Naval Air Service

United States

United States Army Air Service

Uruguay

Specifications (Avro 504K)

Data from The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft

General characteristics

Crew: 2
Length: 29 ft 5 in (8.97 m)
Wingspan: 36 ft (10.97 m)
Height: 10 ft 5 in (3.17 m)
Wing area: 330 ft (30.7 m)
Empty weight: 1,231 lb (558 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 1,829 lb (830 kg)
Powerplant: 1x Le Rhxne Rotary, 110 hp (82 kW)

Performance

Maximum speed: 90 mph (145 km/h)
Cruise speed: 75 mph (126 km/h)
Range: 250 mi (402 km)
Service ceiling: 16,000 ft (4,875 m)
Rate of climb: 700 ft/min (3.6 m/s)
Wing loading: 5.54 lb/ft (18.2 kg/m)
Power/mass: 0.06 hp/lb (0.099 kW/kg)
Climb to 3,500 ft (1,065 m) in 5 min

Manufacturers

The following companies are recorded as manufacturing the Avro 504 under licence.

A. V. Roe and Co Ltd, Park Works, Newton Heath, Manchester; and at Hamble Aerodrome, near Southampton, Hants.
Australian Aircraft and Engineering Co Ltd, Sydney, NSW, Australia
The Brush Electrical Engineering Co Ltd, Loughborough
Canadian Aeroplanes Ltd, Toronto, Canada
The Eastbourne Aviation Co Ltd, Eastbourne
Fabrica Militar de Aviones, Cordoba, Argentina
Frederick Sage and Co Ltd, Peterborough and London
The Grahame-White Aviation Co Ltd, Hendon Aerodrome, London
Harland and Wolff Ltd, Belfast
The Henderson Scottish Aviation Factory, Aberdeen
Hewlett and Blondeau Ltd, Oak Road, Leagrave, Luton, Bedfordshire.
The Humber Motor Co Ltd, Coventry Morgan and Co, Leighton Buzzard, Beds.
Nakajima Hikoki Seisaku Sho, Ohta-Machi, Tokyo, Japan
Parnall & Sons, Mivart Street, Eastville, Bristol
S. E. Saunders Ltd, East Cowes, Isle of Wight Savages Ltd, King's Lynn,
Societe Anonyme Belge de Constructions Aeronautiques Haren, Brussels, Belgium
The Sunbeam Motor Car Co Ltd, Wolverhampton
TNCA, Balbuena field in Mexico City.
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, Japan

Related development

La Cierva C-6

Bruce, J.M. (9 July 1954). "The Avro 504: Historic Military Aircraft No. 8, Part I" (pdf). Flight: pp.41-44. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%201998.html.
Bruce, J.M. (16 July 1954). "The Avro 504: Historic Military Aircraft No. 8, Part II" (pdf). Flight: pp.83-88. http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1954/1954%20-%202060.html.
Bruce, J. M. (1965). Warplanes of the First World War - Fighter, Volume One, Great Britain. London: Macdonald.
Donald, David (Editor) (1997). The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
Holmes, Tony (2005). Jane's Vintage Aircraft Recognition Guide. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0 0071 9292 4.
Jackson, A.J. (1990). Avro Aircraft since 1908 (Second ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
Mason, Francis K (1992). The British Fighter since 1912. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-082-7.
Mason, Francis K (1994). The British Bomber since 1914. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books. ISBN 0 85177 861 5.
Mikesh, Robert C.; Abe, Shorzoe (1990). Japanese Aircraft 1910-1914. London: Putnam. ISBN 0 85177 840 2.
Taylor, M J H (Editor) (1980). Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. Jane's Publishing Company.

Avro 504 Pictures and Avro 504 for Sale.

Living Warbirds: The best warbirds DVD series.

Source: WikiPedia

eXTReMe Tracker