Junkers Ju 88 Airplane Videos and Airplane Pictures

Junkers Ju 88 Video -


Junkers Ju 88 Video - World War II video

Junkers Ju 88 Aircraft Information

Junkers Ju 88

Junkers Ju 88

Warbird Picture - Ju 88A over France, 1942

Picture - Ju 88A over France, 1942

Role: Dive bomber/Tactical bomber/Night fighter/Torpedo bomber/Heavy fighter
Manufacturer: Junkers
Designed by: W. H. Evers and Alfred Gassner
First flight: 21 December 1936
Introduced: 1939
Retired: 1951 (France)
Primaryuser: Luftwaffe
Number built: circa 15,000
Variants: Junkers Ju 188

The Junkers Ju 88 was a World War II German Luftwaffe twin-engine, multi-role aircraft. Designed by Hugo Junkers' company in the mid-1930s, it suffered from a number of technical problems during the later stages of its development and early operational roles, but became one of the most versatile combat aircraft of the war. Affectionately known as "The Maid of all Work" (a feminine version of "jack of all trades"), the Ju 88 proved to be suited to almost any role. Like a number of other Luftwaffe bombers, it was used successfully as a bomber, dive bomber, night fighter, torpedo bomber, reconnaissance aircraft, heavy fighter, and even as a flying bomb during the closing stages of conflict.

World War II Bombing

Despite its protracted development, the aircraft became one of the Luftwaffe's most important assets. The assembly line ran constantly from 1936 to 1945, and more than 16,000 Ju 88s were built in dozens of variants, more than any other twin-engine German aircraft of the period. Throughout the production, the basic structure of the aircraft remained unchanged, proof of the outstanding quality of the original design.

Design and development

In August 1935, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium submitted its requirements for an unarmed, three-seat, high-speed bomber, with a payload of 800-1,000kg (1,760-2,200lb). Junkers presented their initial design in June 1936, and were given clearance to build two prototypes (Werknummer 4941 and 4942). The first two aircraft were to have a range of 2,000km (1,240mi) and were to be powered by two DB 600s. Three further aircraft, (Werknummer 4943, 4944 and 4945), were to be powered by Jumo 211 engines. The first two prototypes, Ju 88 V1 and V2, were different from the V3, V4 and V5 in that the latter three models were equipped with three defensive armament positions to the rear of the cockpit, and were able to carry two 1,000kg (2,200lb) bombs under the inner wing.

The first five prototypes had conventionally-operating dual-strut leg rearwards-retracting main gear, but starting with the V6 prototype, a main gear design that twisted the new, single-leg main gear strut through 90° during the retraction sequence debuted, much like the American Curtiss P-40 fighter design used. This feature allowed the main wheels to end up above the lower end of the strut when fully retracted and was adopted as standard for all future production Ju 88s, and only minimally modified for the later Ju 188 and 388 developments of it. These single-leg landing gear struts also made use of stacks of conical Belleville washers inside them, as their main form of suspension for takeoffs and landings.

By 1938 radical modifications from the first prototype began to produce a "heavy" dive bomber. The wings were strengthened, dive brakes were added, the fuselage was extended and the number of crewmembers was increased to four. Due to these advances, the Ju 88 was to enter the war as a medium bomber.

Airplane Picture - Annular radiator on a wrecked Ju 88

Picture - Annular radiator on a wrecked Ju 88

The choice of annular radiators for engine cooling on the Ju 88, which placed these radiators immediately forward of each engine, and directly behind each propeller, allowed the cooling lines for the engine coolant and oil-cooling radiators (integrated within the annular design) to be just about as short as possible. The concept may have led to a number of other German military aircraft designs adopting the same solution, such as the Arado Ar 240, Heinkel He 177, Heinkel He 219, the inline powered developments of the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 and the twin engined Focke-Wulf Ta 154.

Airplane Picture - Ju 88 assembly line, 1941

Picture - Ju 88 assembly line, 1941

The aircraft's first flight was made by the prototype Ju 88 V1, which bore the civil registration D-AQEN, on 21 December 1936. When it first flew, it managed about 580km/h (360mph) and Hermann Gx¶ring, head of the Luftwaffe was ecstatic. It was an aircraft that could finally fulfill the promise of the Schnellbomber, a high-speed bomber. The streamlined fuselage was modeled after its contemporary, the Dornier Do 17, but with fewer defensive guns because the belief still held that it could outrun late 1930s-era fighters. The fifth prototype set a 1,000km (620mi) closed-circuit record in March 1939, carrying a 2,000kg (4,410lb) payload at a speed of 517km/h (320mph). However, by the time Luftwaffe planners had had their own "pet" features added (including dive-bombing), the Ju 88's top speed had dropped to around 450km/h (280mph). The Ju 88 V7 was fitted with cable-cutting equipment to combat the potential threat of British barrage balloons, and was successfully tested in this role. The V7 then had the Ju 88 A-1 "beetle's eye" faceted nose glazing installed, complete with the Bola undernose ventral defensive machine gun emplacement, and was put through a series of dive-bombing tests with 250kg (550lb) and 500kg (1,100lb) bombs, and in early 1940, with 1,000kg (2,200lb) bombs. The Ju 88 V8 (DG+BF, Wrk Nr 4948) flew on the 3 October 1938. The A-0 series was developed through the V9 and V10 prototypes. The A-1 series prototypes were Wrk Nrs 0003, 0004 and 0005. The A-1s were given the Jumo 211B-1 or G powerplants.

Dr. Heinrich Koppenberg (managing director of Jumo) assured Gx¶ring in the autumn of 1938 that 300 Ju 88s per month was definitely possible. Gx¶ring was in favour of the A-1 variant for mass production.

Production was delayed drastically with developmental problems. Although planned for a service introduction in 1938, the Ju 88 finally entered squadron service (with only 12 aircraft) on the first day of the attack on Poland in 1939. Production was painfully slow with only one Ju 88 manufactured per week, as problems continually kept cropping up. The Ju 88C series of heavy fighter was also designed very early in 1940, but kept secret from Gx¶ring, as he only wanted bombers.

Versatility and operational development

Dive bomber

Airplane Picture - Three Ju 88s in flight over Astypalaia, Greece, 1943

Picture - Three Ju 88s in flight over Astypalaia, Greece, 1943

In October 1937 Generalluftzeugmeister Ernst Udet had ordered the development of the Ju 88 as a heavy dive bomber. This decision was influenced by the success of the Ju 87 Stuka in this role. The Junkers development center at Dessau gave priority to the study of pull-out systems, and dive brakes. The first prototype to be tested as a dive bomber was the Ju 88 V4 followed by the V5 and V6. These models became the planned prototype for the A-1 series. The V5 made its maiden flight on 13 April 1938, and the V6 on 28 June 1938. Both the V5 and V6 were fitted with four-blade propellers, an extra bomb bay and a central "control system". As a dive bomber, the Ju 88 was capable of pinpoint deliveries of heavy loads; however, despite all the modifications, dive bombing still proved too stressful for the airframe, and in 1943, tactics were changed so that bombs were delivered from a shallower, 45° diving angle. Aircraft and bomb sights were accordingly modified and dive brakes were removed. With an advanced Stuvi dive-bombsight, accuracy remained very good for its time. Maximum bomb load of the A-4 was 2,500kg (5,510lb), but in practice, standard bomb load was 1,500-2,000kg (3,310-4,410lb). Junkers later used the A-4 airframe for the A-17 torpedo carrier. However, the variant lacked a ventral gun position.

Airplane Picture - Ju 88 preparing for take off, Tunisia, c. 1942-43

Picture - Ju 88 preparing for take off, Tunisia, c. 1942-43


The standard fighter-bomber version became the Ju 88 C-6, applying experience acquired with the A-4 bomber, equipped with the same Jumo 211J engines. The C-6 was used mostly as fighter-bomber and therefore assigned to bomber units. As a reaction to the increasing number of attacks on German shipping, especially on U-boats in the Bay of Biscay, from July 1942 started flying anti-shipping patrols and escort missions from bases in France. V/.Kampfgeschwader 40 being formed to operate the C-6.

The aircraft of V./KG 40 (which was redesignated I./Zerstx¶rergeschwader 1 in 1943) were a significant threat to the antisubmarine aircraft and operated as escort fighters for the more vulnerable Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor bombers. Between July 1942 and July 1944, the Ju 88s of KG 40 and ZG 1 were credited with 109 confirmed air-to air victories, at a cost of 117 losses. They were finally deployed against the Allied Invasion of Normandy in June 1944, incurring heavy losses for little effect before being disbanded on 5 August 1944.

Attack bomber and bomber destroyer

The Ju 88P was a specialized variant for ground attack, designed starting from 1942 and produced in small numbers. The prototype, derived from a standard Ju 88 A-4, was armed with a 7.5cm anti-tank gun derived from the 7.5 cm PaK 40 installed in a large conformal gun pod under the fuselage. This was followed by a small batch of Ju 88 P-1, which standardized the solid sheet metal nose of the C version for all known examples of the P-series, and used the new 7.5cm PaK 40L semi-automatic gun, also known as BK 7,5,. which was also meant for use in the later Henschel Hs 129B-3 dedicated anti-armor aircraft. The Ju 88P-1 was produced in some 40 units, but with the massive cannon installation resulting in a slow and vulnerable aircraft, it was soon replaced by the Ju 88 P-2, featuring two 3.7cm BK 37 guns, whose higher muzzle velocity proved useful against the Russian tanks in the Eastern Front. This aircraft was used by Erprobungskommando 25. The Ju 88 P-3 added further armor for the crew, and was delivered at one Staffel of the Nachtschlachtgruppen 1, 2, 4, 8 and 9 for night attacks in the Eastern Front, in northern Norway (NSGr 8) and Italy (NSGr 9). Finally, the Ju 88 P-4 mounted a smaller-volume ventral gun pod housing a 5cm auto-loading BK 5 cannon and, in some cases, 6.5cm solid propellant rockets.

Heavy fighter and night fighter

Ju 88C

Airplane Picture - Ju 88C series heavy fighter in flight

Picture - Ju 88C series heavy fighter in flight

The Ju 88C was originally intended as a fighter-bomber and heavy fighter by adding fixed, forward-firing guns to the nose while retaining some bomb carrying ability of the A-series bomber. The C-series had a solid metal nose, and retained the A-series style vertical tail, while omitting the ventral Bola gondola under the crew compartment. It was later used as a night fighter and this became the main role of the Ju 88C.

The first night fighter version of the Ju 88 was the C-2, based on the A-1 and armed with one 20mm MG FF cannon and three 7.92mm (.312in) MG 17 machine guns placed in new metal nose. These examples entered service in Zerstx¶rerstaffel of KG 30 and the unit was renamed II./NJG 1 in July 1940.

The C-6b version was the C-6 Zerstx¶rer plane equipped with FuG 202 Lichtenstein BC low-UHF band airborne intercept radar. The first four C-6b fighters were tested in early 1942 by NJG 1. The trials were successful and the aircraft was ordered into production. In October 1943, many C-6bs were upgraded with new radar systems. The first new radar equipment was the FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1, followed in 1944 by the VHF-band FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2.

A small number of the C-series fighters had their new solid-metal noses specially painted to resemble the bomber A-series' "beetle's eye" faceted clear view nose glazing, in an attempt to deceive Allied pilots into thinking the fighters were actually bombers; the unusual "camouflage" attempt did result initially in a number of Allied aerial losses.

Ju 88R

Airplane Picture - Ju 88 R-1 night fighter captured by British forces at Copenhagen-Kastrup airfield, May 1945.

Picture - Ju 88 R-1 night fighter captured by British forces at Copenhagen-Kastrup airfield, May 1945.

The Ju 88R series night fighters were basically versions of the Ju 88 C-6b powered by BMW 801 radial engines. The R-1 had 1,560PS BMW 801L engines and the R-2 had 1,700PS BMW 801 G-2 engines.

One of the first aircraft from the R-1 series that went into service (Werknummer 360043) was involved in one of the most significant defections which the Luftwaffe suffered. On 9 May 1943, this night fighter, which was stationed with 10./NJG 3 in Norway, flew to the RAF Station at Dyce (now Aberdeen Airport) with its entire crew and complete electronic equipment on board. The fact that Spitfire fighters escorted it towards the end of its flight could indicate that its arrival had been expected. It was immediately transferred to Farnborough Airfield, received RAF markings and serial (PJ876), and was tested in great detail. The preserved aircraft is on exhibit at the RAF Museum. The Luftwaffe only learned of this defection the following month when members of the crew, pilot Oberleutnant Heinrich Schmitt and Oberfeldwebel Paul Rosenberger and Erich Kantwill, made broadcasts on British radio.

Ju 88G

All previous night fighter versions of the Ju 88 used a modified A-series fuselage. The G-series fuselage was purpose-built for the special needs of a night fighter, with the A-series' Bola ventral under-nose defensive gun position omitted for lower aerodynamic drag and less weight. G-1 aircraft were fitted with the enlarged squared-off vertical fin/rudder tail unit of the Ju 188, more powerful armament and 1,700PS BMW 801 G-2 radial engines. Electronic equipment consisted of the then-standard FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 90MHz VHF radar plus sometimes additional FuG 350 Naxos or FuG 227 Flensburg homing devices.

G-6 versions were equipped with 1,750PS Jumo 213A inline-V12 engines, enlarged fuel tanks and often one or two 20mm MG 151/20 cannons in a Schrx¤ge Musik ("Jazz Music", i.e. slanted) installation. Guns were firing obliquely upwards and forwards from the upper fuselage - usually at an angle of 70°.

Some of the final G-series models received updates to the engine, a high-altitude Jumo 213E or to the radar, FuG 218 Neptun V/R or the even newer FuG 240 Berlin N-1 cavity magnetron based, 3GHz-band (centimetric) radar. Only about 15 of those were completed before V-E Day.

Many Luftwaffe night fighter aces, such as Helmut Lent (110 victories) and Heinrich von und zu Sayn-Wittgenstein (87 victories) flew Ju 88s during their careers.

The Imperial Japanese Navy ordered the specifications of an anti-submarine patrol/escort fleet aircraft, based on a medium bomber. Kyūshū closely patterned the Kyūshū Q1W Tokai ("Eastern Sea", Allied codename "Lorna") antisubmarine patrol/fleet escort aircraft after the Ju 88.

Operational history

Polish Campaign

Only 12 Ju 88s saw action in Poland. The unit Erprobungskommando 88 (Ekdo 88) was responsible for testing new bomber designs and their crews under hostile conditions. They selected 12 aicraft and their crews and attached them to 1./Kampfgeschwader 25. As a result of its small operational numbers, the type made no impact.

Battle of Norway

The Luftwaffe committed II./Kampfgeschwader 30 to the campaign under X. Fliegerkorps for Operation Weserx¼bung. The unit was equipped with Ju 88s and engaged Allied shipping as its main target. On 9 April 1940, Ju 88s of KG 30 dive-bombed, in cooperation with high-level bombing Heinkel He 111s of KG 26, and helped damage the battleship HMSRodney and sink the destroyer HMSGurkha. However, the unit lost four Ju 88s in the action, the highest single loss of the aircraft in combat throughout the campaign.

Battle of France

Airplane Picture - Ju 88A, circa 1940

Picture - Ju 88A, circa 1940

The Luftwaffe's order of battle for the French campaign reveals all but one of the Luftwaffe's Fliegerkorps (I. Fliegerkorps) contained Ju 88s in the combat role. The mixed bomber units, including the Ju 88, of Kampfgeschwader 51 (under the command of Luftflotte 3) helped claim between 233 and 248 Allied aircraft on the ground between 10-13 May 1940. The Ju 88 was particularly effective at dive-bombing. Between 13-24 May, I. and II./KG 54 flew 174 attack against rail systems, paralysing French logistics and mobility. On 17 June 1940, Junkers Ju 88s (mainly from Kampfgeschwader 30) destroyed a "10,000 tonne ship", the 16,243grt ocean liner RMSLancastria, off Saint-Nazaire, killing some 5,800 Allied personnel. Some 133 Ju 88s were pressed into the Blitzkrieg, but very high combat losses and accidents forced a quick withdrawal from action to re-train crews to fly this very high performance aircraft. Some crews were reported to be more scared of the Ju 88 than the enemy, and requested a transfer to a He 111 unit. By this time, major performance deficiencies in the A-1 led to an all-out effort in a major design rework. The outcome was a longer, 20.08m (65ft 10½in) wingspan, from extended rounded wing tips that had already been standardised on the A-4 version, that was deemed needed for all A-1s; thus the A-5 was born. Surviving A-1s were modified as quickly as possible, with new wings to A-5 specifications.

Battle of Britain

By August 1940, A-1s and A-5s were reaching operational units, just as the battle was intensifying. The Battle of Britain proved very costly. Its faster speed did not prevent Ju 88 losses exceeding those of its Dornier Do 17 and Heinkel He 111 stablemates, despite being deployed in smaller numbers than either. Ju 88 losses over Britain in 1940 amounted to 313 machines between July-October 1940. One notable incident involved ground fighting between the crew of an A-1 and soldiers from the London Irish Rifles during the Battle of Graveney Marsh on 27 September 1940. It was the last action between British and foreign military forces on British mainland soil. Do 17 and He 111 losses for the same period amounted to 132 and 252 machines destroyed respectively. A series of field kits were made to make it less vulnerable, including the replacement of the rear machine gun by a twin-barreled machine gun, and additional cockpit armour.

Airplane Picture - A German crew rest next to their Ju 88A variant, summer 1942

Picture - A German crew rest next to their Ju 88A variant, summer 1942

It was during the closing days of the Battle of Britain that the flagship Ju 88 A-4 went into service. Although slower yet than the A-1, nearly all of the troubles of the A-1 were gone, and finally the Ju 88 matured into a superb warplane. The A-4 actually saw additional improvements including more powerful engines, but, unlike other aircraft in the Luftwaffe, did not see a model code change. The Ju 88 C-series also benefited from the A-4 changes, and when the Luftwaffe finally did decide on a new heavy fighter, the Ju 88C was a powerful, refined aircraft.

Eastern Front

By summer 1941, most of the units equipped with the Dornier Do 17 were upgrading to the Ju 88. With a few exceptions, most of the German bomber units were now flying the He 111 and Ju 88. The Ju 88 was to prove a very capable and valuable asset to the Luftwaffe in the east. The Ju 88 units met with instant success, attacking enemy airfields and positions at low level and causing enormous losses for little damage in return. 3./Kampfgeschwader 3 attacked Pinsk airfield in the morning of the 22 June 1941. It caught, and claimed destroyed, 60 Soviet bombers on the ground. The 39 SBAP Regiment of the 10 Division SAD actually lost 43 Tupolev SBa and five Petlyakov Pe-2s. Ju 88s from Kampfgeschwader 51 destroyed over 100 aircraft after dispatching 80 Ju 88s to hit airfields. In general the Soviet aircraft were not dispersed and the Luftwaffe found them easy targets. A report from the Soviet 23rd Tank Division of the 12th Armoured Corps reported a low-level attack by Ju 88s on 22 June, resulting in the loss of 40 tanks. However, the Ju 88s were to suffer steady attritional losses. At 0415 on 22 June 1941, III./KG 51 attacked the airfield at Kurovitsa. Despite destroying 34 Polikarpov I-153s, the Ju 88s were intercepted by 66 ShAP I-153s. Six Ju 88s were shot down before the German fighter escort dealt with the threat. By the end of the first day of the campaign, Ju 88 losses amounted to 23 destroyed.

Airplane Picture - Ju 88A of LG 1 over the Eastern Front, 25 September 1941

Picture - Ju 88A of LG 1 over the Eastern Front, 25 September 1941

Due to the lack of sufficient numbers of Ju 87 Stukas, the Ju 88 was employed in the direct ground support role. This resulted in severe losses from ground fire. Kampfgeschwader 1, Kampfgeschwader 76 and Kampfgeschwader 77 reported the loss of 18 Ju 88s over enemy territory on 23 June. KG 76 and KG 77 reported the loss of a further four Ju 88s, of which 12 were 100% destroyed.

In the north, the VVS North-Western Front lost 465 aircraft on the ground, 148 of them bombers, to the Ju 88s of KG 1. A further 33 were damaged. Out of a total of 1,720 aircraft deployed by the VVS Northern Front on 22 June, it lost 890 and a further 187 suffered battle damage in eight days. The Ju 88s units helped virtually destroy Soviet airpower in the northern sector.

Again, the Ju 88 demonstrated its dive-bombing capability. Along with He 111s from KG 55, Ju 88s from KG 51 and 54 destroyed some 220 trucks and 40 tanks on 1 July, which helped repulse the Soviet South Western Front's offensive. The Ju 88s destroyed most rail links during interdiction missions in the area, allowing Panzergruppe 1 to maintain the pace of its advance.

Ju 88 units operating over the Baltic states during the battle for Estonia inflicted severe losses on Soviet shipping, with the same dive-bombing tactics used over Norway, France and Britain. KGr 806 sank the Soviet destroyer Karl Marx on 8 August 1941 in Loksa Bay Tallinn. On 28 August the Ju 88s had more success when KG 77 and KGr 806 sank the 2,026grt steamer Vironia, the 2,317grt Lucerne, the 1,423grt Artis Kronvalds and the ice breaker Krisjanis Valdemars (2,250grt). The rest of the Soviet "fleet", were forced to change course. This took them through a heavily mined area. As a result, 21 Soviet warships, including five destroyers, struck mines and sank. On 29 August, the Ju 88s accounted for the transport ships Vtoraya Pyatiletka (3,974grt), Kalpaks (2,190grt) and Leningradsovet (1,270grt) sunk. Furthermore, the ships Ivan Papanin, Saule, Kazakhstan and the Serp i Molot were damaged. Some 5,000 Soviet soldiers were lost.

Finnish Air Force

Airplane Picture - Finnish Air Force Junkers Ju 88 A-4. The FAF aircraft code for Ju 88 was JK

Picture - Finnish Air Force Junkers Ju 88 A-4. The FAF aircraft code for Ju 88 was JK

In April 1943, as Finland was fighting its Continuation War against the USSR, the Finnish Air Force bought 24 Ju 88s from Germany. The aircraft were used to equip No. 44 Sqn which had previously operated Bristol Blenheims, but these were instead transferred to No. 42 Sqn. Due to the complexity of the Ju 88, most of 1943 was used for training the crews on the aircraft, and only a handful of bombing missions were undertaken. The most notable was a raid on the Lehto partisan village on 20 August 1943 (in which the whole squadron participated), and a raid on the Lavansaari air field (leaving seven Ju 88 damaged from forced landing in inclement weather). In the summer of 1943, the Finns noted stress damage on the wings. This had occurred when the aircraft were used in dive bombing. Restrictions followed: the dive brakes were removed and it was only allowed to dive at a 45 degree angle (compared to 60-80 degrees previously). In this way, they tried to spare the aircraft from unnecessary wear.

Airplane Picture - Ju 88 cockpit hood preserved at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa

Picture - Ju 88 cockpit hood preserved at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa

One of the more remarkable missions was a bombing raid on 9 March 1944 against Soviet Long Range Aviation bases near Saint Petersburg, when the Finnish aircraft, including Ju 88s, followed Soviet bombers returning from a night raid on Tallinn, catching the Soviets unprepared and destroying many Soviet bombers and their fuel reserves, and a raid against the Aerosan base at Petsnajoki on 22 March 1944. The whole bomber regiment took part in the defence against the Soviets during the fourth strategic offensive. All aircraft flew several missions per day, day and night, when the weather permitted.

No. 44 Sqn was subordinated Lentoryhmx¤ Sarko during the Lapland War (now against Germany), and the Ju 88s were used both for reconnaissance and bombing. The targets were mostly vehicle columns. Reconnaissance flights were also made over northern Norway. The last war mission was flown on 4 April 1945.

After the wars, Finland was prohibited from using bomber aircraft with internal bomb stores. Consequently, the Finnish Ju 88s were used for training until 1948. The aircraft were then scrapped over the following years. No Finnish Ju 88s have survived, but an engine is on display at the Central Finland Aviation Museum, and the structure of a German Ju 88 cockpit hood is preserved at the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa.


Ju 88A Main bomber type with Jumo 211 engines. Ju 88 A-0 Pre-production aircraft. Ju 88 A-1 Initial production variant. 895kW (1,200hp) Jumo 211B-1 engines Ju 88 A-2 Jumo 211 G-1 engines. Ju 88 A-3 Conversion trainer. Dual controls. Ju 88 A-4 Improved variant. Long span wings. Modified with new bomb dropping equipment to produce a A-15 "special" bomber variant. RLM refused to authorise mass production, as the wooden bomb bay "bulge" caused too much drag and a thus a reduction in speed. Ju 88B Prototype with all-new fully glazed "stepless" crew compartment nose, developed into Ju 188. Ju 88 B-0 10 pre-production aircraft with "stepless" fully glazed nose. Ju 88C Zerstx¶rer, fighter-bomber and night fighter, based on A-series, but with sheet metal nose. Ju 88 C-1 Planned fighter variant, powered by two BMW 801MA engines. Never built. Ju 88 C-2 Initial production variant. Ju 88 C-4 Heavy fighter, reconnaissance variant. Ju 88 C-5 Improved heavy fighter variant. Ju 88 C-6a Improved Ju 88 C-5 variant. Ju 88 C-6b Night fighter variant. Ju 88 C-6c Night fighter variant. Ju 88 C-7a Intruder variant. Ju 88 C-7b Intruder variant. Ju 88 C-7c Heavy fighter variant. Ju 88D. Long-range photo-reconnaissance variants, based on the Ju 88 A-4. Ju 88 D-1 Long-range photo-reconnaissance variant based on Ju 88 A-4. Ju 88 D-2 Long-range photo-reconnaissance variant based on Ju 88 A-5. Ju 88 D-3 Tropicalized long-range photo-reconnaissance variant based on Ju 88 A-4. Ju 88 D-4 Tropicalized long-range photo-reconnaissance variant based on Ju 88 A-5. Ju 88 D-5 Ju 88G Night fighter, new fuselage with A-series' ventral Bola gondola omitted, tail section from Ju 188, optional Schrx¤ge Musik. Ju 88H Long-range photo-reconnaissance, fighter variants, based on the stretched Ju 88G-series fuselage. Ju 88 H-1 Long-range photo reconnaissance variant. Ju 88 H-2 Fighter variant. Ju 88 H-3 Long-range photo-reconnaissance variant. Ju 88 H-4 Fighters variant. Ju 88P Anti-tank and anti-bomber variant with single Bordkanone series 50mm (2in), 75mm (2.95in) or twin 37mm (1.46in) calibre cannons in ventral fuselage gun pod mount, which mandated removal of the Bola gondola under the cockpit section, small series, conversion of A-series bomber. Ju 88 P-1 Heavy-gun variant fitted with single 75mm (2.95in) Bordkanone BK 75 cannon in ventral gun pod. Ju 88 P-2 Heavy-gun variant with twin 37mm (1.46in) Bordkanone BK 37 cannon in ventral gun pod. Ju 88 P-4 Heavy-gun variant with single 50mm (2in) Bordkanone BK 5 cannon in ventral gun pod. Ju 88R C-series night fighter series with BMW 801 engines. Ju 88S High-speed bomber series based on Ju 88 A-4 but with ventral Bola gondola omitted, smoothly-glazed nose and GM-1 nitrous-oxide boost, fastest of all variants. Ju 88 S-0 Fitted with two BMW 801 G-2 engines, single 13mm (.51in) dorsal gun and 14 SD65 (65kg/143lb) bombs. Ju 88 S-1 Fitted with two BMW 801 G-2 engines, the GM-1 boost system and could carry two SD1000 1,000kg (2,200lb) bombs externally. Ju 88 S-2 Fitted with two turbocharged BMW 801J engines, wooden bomb bay extension as used on the Ju 88 A-15. Ju 88 S-3 Fitted with two 1,671kW (2,240hp) Juma 213A engines and GM-1 boost system. Ju 88T Three-seat photo-reconnaissance version of S-series. Ju 88 T-1 Based on the Ju 88 S-1 but with bomb bays fitted for extra fuel of GM-1 tanks. Ju 88 T-3 Based on the Ju 88 S-3.



Bulgarian Air Force


Finnish Air Force received 24 Ju 88 A-4 aircraft.
No. 44 Squadron


Armée de l'Air operated aircraft captured in Toulouse repair depot and other captured by the RAF and USAAF handed over to the French.




Royal Hungarian Air Force


Regia Aeronautica


Royal Romanian Air Force

United Kingdom

Royal Air Force operated captured aircraft.

Soviet Union

Soviet Air Force operated captured aircraft.

Spanish State

Spanish Air Force bought ten aircraft and put into service another 15 interned during the war.


Around 14 aircraft still exist, although many of these are little more than collections of wreckage recovered from remote crash sites. Several reasonably intact airframes have been recovered from underwater crash sites in recent years, some of these aircraft are under restoration for static display, such as WNr.0881203 in Bodx¸ and WNr.0880119 at Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. Only two complete aircraft exist:

Airplane Picture - Junkers Ju 88 D-1/Trop,

Picture - Junkers Ju 88 D-1/Trop, "Baksheesh", USAF Museum (2007)

Ju 88 D-1/Trop, Werk Nr. 430650

This is a long-range, photographic reconnaissance aircraft that was in the service of the Romanian Air Force. It is displayed at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. On 22 July 1943, it was flown to Cyprus by a Romanian pilot who wanted to defect to the British forces on the island. Four pilots (Flt Sgt Thomas Barker Orford, W/O Arnold Kenneth Asboe, P/O Joseph Alfred Charles Pauley, Flt Sgt H.M. Woodward) in Hurricanes from No. 127 Squadron escorted it to the airfield at Tobruk. Given the name Baksheesh, it was subsequently handed over to the U.S. Air Force, which flew the aircraft across the South Atlantic to Wright Field for examination and test flying. In 1946 the aircraft was placed in storage in Arizona. It was shipped to the Museum in January 1960. It was previously painted in spurious, Luftwaffe markings; however it is presently finished in its original-style Romanian military insignia. The aircraft is displayed in the Museum's Air Power gallery.

Airplane Picture - Ju 88 R-1, Werk Nr. 360043, RAF Museum (2007)

Picture - Ju 88 R-1, Werk Nr. 360043, RAF Museum (2007)

Ju 88 R-1, Werk Nr. 360043

This aircraft was flown to Scotland by its defecting crew in May 1943; two of the three crew on board (who may have already been British agents) had taken the decision to defect after being ordered to shoot down a civilian BOAC Mosquito courier flight from Sweden to the UK, and held the third crewmember at gunpoint during the attempt. The aircraft was detected by British radar as it approached Scotland and two Spitfires from 165 Squadron were scrambled. They intercepted 360043 one mile inland, whereupon the Ju 88 lowered its undercarriage, waggled its wings and dropped flares, signaling the crew's intent to surrender. The Spitfires escorted 360043 RAF Dyce, where it received slight damage from the airfield's anti-aircraft guns while attempting to land. The Spitfire pilots (an American and a Canadian) were Mentioned in Dispatches for taking the risk not to open fire on the Ju 88 upon interception. The capture of this aircraft was of great intelligence value at the time, as it was fitted with the latest FuG 202 Liechtenstein BC A.I radar. The Ju 88 was evaluated in depth by various British groups, including the RAE and the Fighter Interception Unit. It was used to assist in teaching enemy aircraft recognition skills prior to the D-Day landings, and was last flown in May 1945. In September 1954 and again in September 1955, it was displayed on Horseguards Parade for Battle of Britain week. The aircraft was restored in 1975 and in August 1978 moved to the RAF Museum, its present home.

Specifications Ju 88 A-4

Data from

General characteristics

Crew: 4
Length: 14.36 m (47 ft 2â…ž in)
Wingspan: 20.08 m (65.88 ft)
Height: 5.07 m (16.63 ft)
Wing area: 54.7 m² (587 ft²)
Loaded weight: 8,550 kg (18,832 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 14,000 kg (30,865 lb)
Powerplant: 2x— Junkers Jumo 211J liquid-cooled inverted V-12, 1,044 kW (1,420 PS, 1,401 hp) each


Maximum speed: 510 km/h (317 mph) at 5,300 m (17,388 ft) without external bomb racks
Range: 2,430 km (1,429 mi) maximum internal fuel
Service ceiling: 9,000 m (29,500 ft) at average weight, without bombs


1 x— 7.92 mm MG 81J machine gun on flexible mount in front windscreen, firing forward with 1,000 rounds.
2 x— 7.92 mm MG 81J on flexible mounts in back of the cockpit firing to the rear with 1,000 rounds each
1 x— 7.92 MG 81Z twin machine guns in the gondola under the cockpit firing to the rear with 3,000 rounds in total.
3,000 kg (6,614 lb) maximum of bombs in internal bomb bays and externally or overloaded to 3,600 kg (7,937 lb).
Or 2 x— LT aerial torpedoes

Armament options

Additional fitting of single 7.92mm (.312 in) MG 15 machine guns, one to each side of the cockpit glazing in flexible "Donut" mountings, covering the side hemisphere.
Additional fitting of a single 7.92mm (.312 in) MG 15, MG 81J (on occasion a twin MG 81Z) or 13mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine gun in A-Stand in the lower nose glazing.
A single 13mm (.51 in) MG 131 was sometimes used in place of the 7.92mm (.312 in) MG 81J or MG 81Z machineguns in the A-Stand, B-Stand or Bola gondola positions.
A modification of the A-4, the Ju 88 A-13s could carry the Waffenbehx¤lter WB 81A or WB 81B (firing with 15° downwards deflection) gun pods on external bomb racks for ground attack duties, each "watering can" containing three 7.92mm (.312 in) MG 81Z twin machine guns, for strafing enemy troops.
Aircraft may carry one 20mm MG FF cannon in the nose for ground attack purposes, with 90 rounds of ammunition, in place of the Lotfernrohr 7 bombsight

Specifications Ju 88 G-1

Data from

General characteristics

Crew: 3
Length: 15.50 m (without radar) (50.85 ft)
Wingspan: 20.08 m (65.88 ft)
Height: 5.07 m (16.63 ft)
Wing area: 54.7 m² (587 ft²)
Empty weight: 9,081 kg (20,020 lb)
Loaded weight: 13,100 kg (28,880 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 14,690 kg (32,385 lb) (overload)
Powerplant: 2x— BMW 801G-2 double-row radials, 1,250 kW (1,700 PS, 1,677 hp) each


Maximum speed: 550 km/h (342 mph) at 8,500 m (27,890 ft)
Range: 2,500 km (1,553 mi)
Service ceiling: 9,900 m (32,480 ft)
Wing loading: 240 kg/m² (49.2 lb/ft²)
Power/mass: 0.18 kW/kg (0.12 hp/lb)
Endurance: 4 hours


4 x— 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons, firing forwards.
1 or 2 x— 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine guns in the rear cockpit, firing rearwards.
1 or 2 x— 20 mm MG 151/20s as Schrx¤ge Musik, firing forwards and upwards at an 30-45 degree angle, Optional.

Specifications Ju 88 P-3

Data from

General characteristics

Crew: 3
Length: 14.85 m ()
Wingspan: 20 m ()
Height: 4.85 m ()
Wing area: 54.56 m² ()
Empty weight: c. 11,080 kg ()
Max takeoff weight: c. 12,670 kg ()
Powerplant: 2x— Jumo 211J-2 12 cylinder inverted-vee, 1,420 PS () each


Maximum speed: 360 km/h
Range: 1,580 km ()
Service ceiling: c. 5500 m ()


4 x— 37 mm BK 37 cannons in a gondola under the front fuselage, firing forwards.
up to 6 x 7.92 mm machine guns.

Related development

Ju 188
Ju 388

Comparable aircraft

de Havilland Mosquito
Bristol Blenheim
Bristol Beaufighter
Petlyakov Pe-2
Mitsubishi Ki-21
Yokosuka P1Y



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