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Hermann von Francois Information

Hermann von Francois

Place of birth: Luxembourg
Allegiance: German Empire
Service/branch: Army
Years of service: 1875-1918
Rank: General of the Infantry
Commands held: Hessischen-Brigade, I Corps
Battles/wars: World War I
Battle of Stalluponen
Battle of Gumbinnen
Battle of Tannenberg
Other work: memoirist, historian

World War I

Battle of Stalluponen
Battle of Gumbinnen
Battle of Tannenberg

Hermann von Franx§ois (January 31, 1856 - May 15, 1933) was a German General der Infanterie during World War I, and is best known for his key role in several German victories on the Eastern Front in 1914.

Early life and military career

Born in Luxembourg to a noble family of Huguenot extraction, Franx§ois was exposed to a military life from an early age. His father Bruno von Franx§ois was a Prussian general and commander of the 27. (PreuxŸische) Infanterie-Brigade. He was killed in action leading his men during the Battle of Spicheren on 6 August 1870, only a few days before the Battle of Sedan.

Franx§ois, who had enrolled as an officer cadet, was by 1875 based in Potsdam as Leutnant of the 1.Garde-Regiment zu FuxŸ. From 1884 - 87, he attended the Military Academy at Berlin, and by 1889 had been promoted to Hauptmann (Captain) and had joined the General Staff.

By the early 1890s, Franx§ois was posted to the XV.Armeekorps as a general staff officer based in Strasbourg. After a brief stint as company commander in 151. Infanterie-Regiment of the 31.Division, Franx§ois devoted all his energies to the General Staff. In 1894 he was promoted to major and transferred to the 8. Division in Mannheim. By 1899, Franx§ois was the Chief of Staff for the IV Corps, commanded by General der Infanterie Paul von Hindenburg and based in Magdeburg.

In 1901, Franx§ois's mother, Marie took the family to German South-West Africa to follow her youngest son, Hugo von Franx§ois who was a Hauptmann (Captain) in the Colonial Army. The family was based in the region during the Herero Wars, in which Hugo fought. Franx§ois' other brother, Curt von Franx§ois, was a well known scientist and researcher specialising in Africa.

In 1908, Franx§ois was promoted to Generalmajor and placed in command of the Hessischen-Brigade in Darmstadt. Franx§ois was promoted to Generalleutnant in 1911 and given command of the 13. Division for a brief period before his promotion to General der Infanterie and posting to command of I Corps under the 8th Army based in Kx¶nigsberg.

World War I

Franx§ois began the war stationed in the province of East Prussia, where he was commander of the I Corps of the German Eighth Army. His task was to defend the easternmost regions of East Prussia against a Russian attack directed at the key city of Kx¶nigsberg. The Eighth Army would be expected to hold out against significantly larger Russian forces until it could be reinforced by troops coming from the west after the expected quick defeat of France, in accordance with the Schlieffen Plan, which would guide German forces in the opening phase of a war in which Germany faced both France and Russia.

When war broke out in August 1914, Franx§ois' corps faced the right wing of a two-pronged Russian invasion of East Prussia, led by Paul von Rennenkampf's Russian First Army. On August 17, the overall German theater commander, General Maximilian von Prittwitz, nervously eying the advance of the Russian left wing far to the south, ordered Von Franx§ois to retreat while under heavy attack from Rennenkampf.

Franx§ois, reluctant to surrender any of his beloved Prussia, and naturally pugnacious, also felt breaking off while engaged would be deadly, and so he ignored Prittwitz' order, responding with the famous reply "General von Franx§ois will withdraw when he has defeated the Russians!" He counterattacked Rennenkampf's massive army, bringing on the Battle of Stalluponen, and won a surprising victory while inflicting 5,000 casualties and taking 3,000 prisoners.

After winning the battle, Franx§ois obeyed Prittwitz's order and withdrew 15 miles (24 km) to the west, where three days later he fought Rennenkampf to a draw at the Battle of Gumbinnen. Von Franx§ois' aggressiveness resulted in the cautious Rennenkampf halting his advance westward.

Following that battle and a change of overall commanders (Prittwitz was judged to have lost his nerve by the German High Command), Franx§ois' corps was transferred by rail to the southwest, to confront the Russian Second Army advancing into southern East Prussia under the command of General Alexander Samsonov. Although not trusted by the new German commanders Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff due to his previous disobedience, Franx§ois played the decisive role in the upcoming Battle of Tannenberg (1914). On August 27, Franx§ois attacked the lead elements of Samsonov's army and began to make steady advances into their rear. Ludendorff, fearing a Russian counterattack by Rennenkampf, now ordered him to break off the advance. However, Franx§ois twice ignored his direct orders and played a decisive role in the following encirclement and defeat of Samsonov's army.

When Hindenburg and Ludendorff went south to lead the 9th Army in Russian Poland, Franx§ois remained with his corps in East Prussia and led it with much success in the First Battle of the Masurian Lakes the following month. When General von Schubert, the new commander of the 8th Army, ordered him to retreat, he dispatched a telegram to the OHL describing his success and stating "the Commander is badly counselled." The telegram impressed the Kaiser so much that he immediately relieved Schubert and, on 3 October, gave von Franx§ois the command of the 8th Army. He did not hold it for long. When Hindenburg and Ludendorff prepared their counter-attack from Thorn in the direction of Łx³dź, Franx§ois was reluctant to send the requested I Corps, sending badly trained and ill-equipped XXV Reserve Corps instead. That was too much for his superiors. In early November 1914 von Franx§ois was removed and replaced by General Otto von Below.

After some time spent "on the shelf", Franx§ois received the command of the XLI Reserve Corps on 24 December 1914, and after a spell in the West, he returned to the Eastern Front in April 1915 where he took part in the Spring Offensive that conquered Russian Poland. He continued to distinguish himself. He won the Pour le Mérite, Germany's highest military decoration, on 14 May 1915 for his performance in the breakthrough at Gorlice, and had the Oak Leaves attached to it in July 1917, for outstanding performance during the Battle of Verdun. In July 1915 he was transferred back to the Western Front to take command of the Westphalian VII Corps in France, and in July 1916 Meuse Group West in the Verdun sector. However he never received any further promotion or serious commands under Ludendorff, and gave up his command in July 1918 and was placed on the standby list until October 1918 when he retired.


After the war ended, Franx§ois returned home and wrote several books on military history, including the best-seller (in Germany) Marneschlacht und Tannenberg in 1920.


Order of the Black Eagle
Iron Cross
Pour le Mérite

The Kaiser's Warlords: German Commanders of World War I, by Ronald Pawly, Patrice Courcelle, 2003.

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Source: WikiPedia

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