Alexander Samsonov - History of World War I - WW1 - The Great War

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World War 1 Picture - Samsonov memorial, erected in the 1920s at Samsonov's place of death

Alexander Samsonov Information

Aleksandr Vassilievich Samsonov

Place of birth: Andreevka, Russian Empire (now in Ukraine)
Place of death: Willenberg, East Prussia
Allegiance: Russian Empire
Service/branch: Imperial Russian Army
Years of service: ~1877-1914
Rank: General
Commands held: Warsaw Military District (1906-?)
Second Army (1914)
Battles/wars: Battle of Tannenberg

Aleksandr Vassilievich Samsonov ( Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Самсо́нов; 2 November 1859 - 29 August 1914) was a career officer in the cavalry of the Imperial Russian Army and a general served during the Russo-Japanese War and World War I.


Samsonov was born in Kherson Province of the Russian Empire in what is now part of the Ukraine. After graduation from the Vladimir of Kiev Cadet Corps and elite Nikolaev Cavalry School , he joined the Imperial Russian Army at age 18 as a cornet in the 12th Hussars Regiment.

Samsonov fought in the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78. After this war he attended the Nikolaevsky Military Academy in St. Petersburg. On November 4, 1888 he was appointed senior aide to the staff of the 20th Infantry Division, and from July 10, 1885 to February 4, 1889 served as Senior Staff Adjutant to the Caucasus Grenadier Division. From March 11, 1890 through July 26, 1896 he worked at various assignments at the Warsaw Military District. He subsequently became commandant of the Elisavetgrad Cavalry School.

During the Boxer Rebellion (1900), Samsonov commanded a cavalry unit. During the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), he commanded a cavalry brigade of the Ussuri Siberian Cossack Division. Through these conflicts Samsonov gained a reputation as an energetic and resourceful leader, but some observers criticized his strategic abilities. After the Battle of Mukden in 1905 he accused General Paul von Rennenkampf of failing to assist him during the fighting and the two came to blows.

In 1906, Samsonov became Chief of staff of the Warsaw Military District, and in 1909 was Governor-General of Russian Turkestan and commander of the Turkestan Military District. He was also commander of the Semirechye Cossacks.

At the start of World War I, Samsonov received the command of the Second Army for the invasion of East Prussia. He advanced slowly into the south-western corner of East Prussia, intending to link up with General Rennenkampf's forces, which had started advancing from the north-east section. However, lack of communication between the two would hinder co-ordination.

General (later Field Marshal) Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who arrived on the Eastern Front to replace General Maximilian von Prittwitz, engaged Samsonov's advancing forces. They made contact on 22 August and for six days the numerically superior Russians had some success. However, by August 29 the Germans, who were intercepting Russian wireless communications, had surrounded Samsonov's Second Army In the woods between Allenstein and Willenberg. The rout that followed was soon dubbed "the (Second) Battle of Tannenberg".

General Samsonov attempted to retreat, but with his army now trapped in a German encirclement, the German Eighth Army killed or captured most of his troops.

World War 1 Picture - Samsonov memorial, erected in the 1920s at Samsonov's place of death

Picture - Samsonov memorial, erected in the 1920s at Samsonov's place of death

Only 10,000 of the 150,000 Russian soldiers managed to escape the encirclement. Shocked by the disastrous outcome of the battle and unable to face reporting the scale of the disaster, for which he knew he would be held responsible, to Tsar Nicholas II, Samsonov never arrived back at headquarters; he committed suicide on August 30, 1914 near Willenberg.In 1916 his body was handed over by the Germans to his wife, through the intercession of the International Red Cross.


Order of St. Anne 4nd degree 1877
Order of St. Stanislaus 3rd degree 1880
Order of St. Anne 3rd degree 1885
Order of St. Stanislaus 2nd degree 1889
Order of St. Anne 2nd degree 1892
Order of St Vladimir, 4th degree, 1896
Order of St Vladimir, 3rd degree, 1900
Order of St. Stanislaus 2nd degree with swords, 1904
Order of St. Anne 1st degree 1905
Golden Sword of St. George, 1906
Order of St Vladimir, 2nd degree, 1906
Order of St. George, 4th class, 1907
Order of the White Eagle, with swords, 1909
, Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, 1913

Connaughton, R.M (1988). The War of the Rising Sun and the Tumbling Bear-A Military History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904-5, London, ISBN 0-415-00906-5.
Jukes, Geoffry. The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905. Osprey Essential Histories. (2002). ISBN 978-1-84176-446-7.
Warner, Denis & Peggy. The Tide at Sunrise, A History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905. (1975). ISBN 0-7146-5256-3.

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Source: WikiPedia

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